Thursday, March 23, 2017

Why Do People With Schizophrenia Die Prematurely?

That is the title of this article I reviewed today. "Schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the US population. This serious psychiatric illness is characterized by psychotic symptoms (hallucinations and delusions), cognitive symptoms (difficulties with attention, memory, and decision making), and negative symptoms (withdrawn behavior, low speech output and content, and diminished motivation).
Although there is no cure for schizophrenia, treatment can decrease symptoms. Currently, these treatments include medications and psychosocial interventions. Many individuals with schizophrenia can work, live independently or with limited assistance, and enjoy life. Unfortunately, some individuals have symptoms that do not respond to treatment and interfere with their ability to lead independent lives and comply with treatment. Persons with schizophrenia have a greatly diminished life span. In general, people with this disorder die more than 25 years earlier than the general population. In other words, these individuals can only expect to live about 70% of the normal life span. Why do they die early?"That is a drag that a person cannot live out a full life.  I know I want to especially now that my great grandson was born.  I want to get to know him. When you have schizophrenia you have to worry about your health and take care like exercise.
The article goes on to say: "In a paper recently published in JAMA Psychiatry, Mark Olfson and colleagues set out to answer this question. They examined reasons for premature mortality in a group of over 1 million people with schizophrenia covered by Medicaid, the largest insurance provider for persons suffering from schizophrenia in the U.S. They identified causes of death for over 65,500 of the 74,000 people who died during the study period and found that individuals with schizophrenia had an increased rate of death across all ages and all demographic groups when compared to the general population. What were the causes of death in these individuals? Olfson and colleagues found that both natural causes and unnatural causes of death were increased by over three-fold. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease, cancer (particularly lung cancer), diabetes, influenza, accidental deaths, and suicides. The large majority of deaths (almost 55,750) resulted from natural causes. However, the rates of death from suicide and accidents were also substantially elevated"I do not know if my lung cancer was caused my schizophrenia or it runs in my family. I have to say that because my mom just had breast cancer so it probably runs in the family.  My aunt also died from lung cancer.  Suicide I guess I should put up articles about hope because you do not have to have a mental illness to commit suicide. My ex-wife did because she thought she could not go through life being alone all she needed was a day and the argument she had would have been forgotten.  I blame myself a lot because some one you once loved was unhappy.  How did I contribute to that. Everyone gets depressed once in awhile but there is so much to live such as grand kids.
The article ends: "Smoking is a significant risk factor for a number of diseases on this list. It has been known for a long time that a large majority of persons with schizophrenia smoke. In fact, the rate of smoking for individuals with schizophrenia is more than twice the rate observed in individuals without schizophrenia. Many are also very heavy smokers. This increased rate of smoking accounts for some of the increased death rate, but not all of it. Can something be done to decrease premature death in people with schizophrenia? Helping individuals stop smoking would greatly improve life expectancy. Premature deaths from cardiovascular disease can also be reduced by treating high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. The effects of diabetes and cardiovascular disease can also be diminished by regular exercise, eating right, and, in those who are obese, weight loss. Health care professionals should routinely screen for suicidality, depression, and use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse, and recommend treatment when appropriate. Encouraging individuals to minimize their use of alcohol and marijuana may lead to a decrease in accidental deaths and deaths from suicide. Treatments for drug addiction can help a number of individuals avoid premature death.
Although implementing the above recommendations may be a challenge in persons with psychotic illnesses, such treatment programs can and do work in this population. Investing in educational and psychosocial resources will save lives. It is important that families and friends of people living with schizophrenia not give up and continuously encourage their loved ones to engage in programs that include smoking cessation, drug cessation, exercise, healthy eating, maintenance of healthy body weight, and control of high blood pressure and high cholesterol." It did not matter that I quit smoking nineteen years ago I still got lung cancer.  I was a heavy smoker though. I have high blood pressure but it is controlled my two medicines. Which personally I do not like taking all kinds of medication the cost and having to take all those medicines.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Why Do People With Schizophrenia Die Prematurely?

That is the title of this article I am reviewing today. "Schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the US population. This serious psychiatric  illness is characterized by psychotic symptoms (hallucinations and delusions), cognitive symptoms (difficulties with attention, memory, and decision making ), and negative symptoms (withdrawn behavior, low speech output and content, and diminished motivation). Although there is no cure for schizophrenia, treatment can decrease symptoms. Currently, these treatments include medications and psychosocial interventions. Many individuals with schizophrenia can work, live independently or with limited assistance, and enjoy life. Unfortunately, some individuals have symptoms that do not respond to treatment and interfere with their ability to lead independent lives and comply with treatment. Persons with schizophrenia have a greatly diminished life span. In general, people with this disorder die more than 25 years earlier than the general population. In other words, these individuals can only expect to live about 70% of the normal life span. Why do they die early? In a paper recently published in JAMA Psychiatry, Mark Olfson and colleagues set out to answer this question. They examined reasons for premature mortality in a group of over 1 million people with schizophrenia covered by Medicaid, the largest insurance provider for persons suffering from schizophrenia in the U.S. They identified causes of death for over 65,500 of the 74,000 people who died during the study period and found that individuals with schizophrenia had an increased rate of death across all ages and all demographic groups when compared to the general population." Does it include people who have no symptoms?  Why do they die if they are getting general health physicians.  What is the cause?
The article goes on to say: "What were the causes of death in these individuals? Olfson and colleagues found that both natural causes and unnatural causes of death were increased by over three-fold. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular disease, cancer (particularly lung cancer), diabetes, influenza, accidental deaths, and suicides. The large majority of deaths (almost 55,750) resulted from natural causes. However, the rates of death from suicide and accidents were also substantially elevated. Smoking is a significant risk factor for a number of diseases on this list. It has been known for a long time that a large majority of persons with schizophrenia smoke. In fact, the rate of smoking for individuals with schizophrenia is more than twice the rate observed in individuals without schizophrenia. Many are also very heavy smokers. This increased rate of smoking accounts for some of the increased death rate, but not all of it. Can something be done to decrease premature death in people with schizophrenia? Helping individuals stop smoking would greatly improve life expectancy. Premature deaths from cardiovascular disease can also be reduced by treating high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. The effects of diabetes and cardiovascular disease can also be diminished by regular exercise, eating right, and, in those who are obese, weight loss." Lung cancer I already had that I was not worrying about dying from it I just did not want to be sick from it.  It was terrible and having a lung taken out is worse although I did not have to do chemotherapy that I was happy about.  I have high blood pressure and even though I walk and lost weight I still have high blood pressure.
The article ends: "Health care professionals should routinely screen for suicidality, depression, and use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse, and recommend treatment when appropriate. Encouraging individuals to minimize their use of alcohol and marijuana may lead to a decrease in accidental deaths and deaths from suicide. Treatments for drug addiction can help a number of individuals avoid premature death. Although implementing the above recommendations may be a challenge in persons with psychotic illnesses, such treatment programs can and do work in this population. Investing in educational and psychosocial resources will save lives. It is important that families and friends of people living with schizophrenia not give up and continuously encourage their loved ones to engage in programs that include smoking cessation, drug cessation, exercise, healthy eating, maintenance of healthy body weight, and control of high blood pressure and high cholesterol." Anyone can stop doing drugs and alcohol they just have to hit rock bottom.  That is what happen to me I could go no lower and alcohol just made me end up in prison or the state hospital the latter I really hate and that is what helped me.  I do not want to go back to the state hospital it is worse than jail or prison. To many head games there.

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Weight loss on antipsychotics is possible: study

That is the title of this article I am reviewing today. "'By | NEW YORK
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The drugs people take to help ease serious mental illnesses often contribute to weight and blood sugar problems - but researchers say a lifestyle intervention can be helpful on both fronts. The so-called 'antipsychotic drugs' that patients take to control their symptoms tend to stimulate hunger and thirst and cause metabolic changes. But in a new test of a year-long intervention, people taking these drugs for illnesses like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were able to lose weight and improve their blood sugar levels. 'The results are somewhat surprising because people with serious mental illnesses have many barriers to losing weight,' said lead author Carla A. Green, of the Center for Health Research at Kaiser Permanente Northwest in Portland, Oregon. 'That is really important because people with serious mental illness are already at much higher risk for obesity and obesity-related disease and they have a reduced life expectancy because of this.'

A number of medication side-effects, including weight gain, deter some people from taking their prescribed antipsychotics, Green said. 'Our study showed that if given the right tools, they can lose similar amounts of weight as people without severe mental illnesses,' she told Reuters Health by email. Clozapine (FazaClo), olanzapine (Zyprexa), quetiapine (Seroquel) and risperidone (Risperdal), which treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other mental illnesses, have all been linked to increased risk of weight gain. Green and her team studied 200 adults who’d been taking antipsychotic medications for at least a month and who had a body mass index (BMI) of at least 27. BMI is a measure of weight relative to height; the cutoff for “overweight” is 25. (You can calculate your own BMI here: 1.usa.gov/XcVMat.) '" I know I once weighed 214 lbs when I was on Moban.  My new medication is Geodon and it is weight neutral.
The article goes on to say: "'They explain in the American Journal of Psychiatry that patients were randomly assigned to an 'intervention' group that participated in the new program, or a comparison group that just got their usual medical care. In the intervention group, participants attended weekly two-hour group meetings for the first six months of the study. At each session, they met with mental health counselors and nutritionists; each meeting also included 20 minutes of physical activity.

In addition, participants recorded what and how much they ate, how much they slept and how much they exercised, with a goal of at least 25 minutes of moderate activity per day. The intervention was focused on improved diet with more vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy, moderate caloric restriction, increased exercise primarily from walking, stress management, and improved sleep, Green said.

For the second half of the year, the participants met to discuss strategies for maintaining weight loss.

The comparison group did not participate in the weight loss or maintenance interventions.

People in the intervention group lost an average of about 10 pounds over the duration of the study. Those in the comparison group also lost some weight, but much smaller amounts, the authors write.

In the intervention group, 40 percent of participants lost at least five percent of their initial body weight, and 18 percent lost at least 10 percent of their initial weight. Over the course of the year, fasting blood sugar levels went down in the intervention group, but they went up in the comparison group. Use of antipsychotic drugs in the U.S. has been on the rise since the 1990’s, especially among kids (see Reuters story of August 7, 2012 here: reut.rs/1ph77xl). The intervention resulted in a relatively modest weight loss, and did not depend on the type of medication, said Dr. Daniel J. Mueller, who has done research on ways to improve psychiatric drug treatment at the Center for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto. Individual motivation is key when addressing weight loss, Mueller told Reuters Health by email. Although patients with serious mental illness face more difficulties, some will be motivated enough to overcome them, he said. 'Some doctors will now routinely start treatment with relatively weight neutral antipsychotics first, like aripiprazole (Abilify) or ‎ziprasidone (Geodon), if they work,' he said.'" I lost weight by walking and cutting in half the portions I eat.  I know go from 175 lbs up to 180 lbs.  I watch what I eat and also watch how much I sleep because if I do not sleep at least eight hours a night I am hungry and tired throughout the day.
The article ends: "But the drugs that work the best on average also have high weight gain risk, like clozapine and olanzapine, or at least moderate risk, like risperidone, Mueller said. 'In our qualitative interviews, we found that group support was one of the most important components of our intervention,' Green said. 'Many of our participants said they benefited from the camaraderie of others who faced the same challenges, and this may be particularly important among people with serious mental health problems because they tend to be more socially isolated.' People taking antipsychotics can talk to their doctors about weight gain and medication alternatives, weight management programs and support groups while increasing physical activity, decreasing calories and portion size, she said. 'Perhaps more importantly, lifestyle change programs of this type are not routinely offered in community mental health centers because the programs focus on physical health concerns and this makes reimbursement for those services difficult if not impossible in mental health settings,' Green said. That makes it hard to provide lifestyle change programs in the places where people with serious mental illnesses are most likely to be able to take advantage of them, she said.'" Yes they have to have support to continue losing weight.  It is not easy to lose weight. It is easy to put in on though.  I was skinny until I stopped smoking and then I was buying new pants every month.

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Blood Test Helps Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

That is the title of this article I am reviewing today. "'Investigators have developed a blood test that could help doctors more quickly diagnose schizophrenia and other disorders. Researchers from the University of Maryland College Park (UMD) and Baltimore (UMB) campuses believe the new technique will help clinicians and improve patient outcomes. 'We hope our new technique will allow a more rapid detection and intervention for schizophrenia, and ultimately lead to better outcomes,' said Gregory Payne, one of the authors. The study, 'Redox Probing for Chemical Information of Oxidative Stress,' was recently published in the journal Analytical Chemistry.'" If they can diagnosis it quicker the better for people because it is easier to treat if they know sooner. If they can make people not have to go through not understanding why they have this disease and not suffer through multiple episodes.
The article goes on to say. "Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the U.S. adult population and influences how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. The onset of symptoms usually begins between ages 16 and 30. Symptoms can range from visual and auditory hallucinations and movement disorders to difficulty beginning and sustaining activities. Currently, diagnosing schizophrenia and similar disorders requires a thorough psychological evaluation and a comprehensive medical exam to rule out other conditions.
A patient may be evaluated for six or more months before receiving a diagnosis and beginning treatment, particularly if he or she shows only early signs of the disorder. Recent studies have indicated that patient outcomes could be improved if the time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of treatment is much shorter. For this reason, researchers believe a chemical test that could detect oxidative stress in the blood — a state commonly linked with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders — could be invaluable in helping to diagnose schizophrenia more quickly." The sooner the diagnosis the sooner you can be treated that sound better than waiting six months to get treated.  I know if the doctor would have told me I had a mental illness I would not have had another breakdown. Instead he told me it just was me not sleeping and put me on a sleep med.
The article ends. "'he UMD and UMB team, led by research associate Eunkyoung Kim, used a discovery-driven approach based on the assumptions that chemical biomarkers relating to oxidative stress could be found in blood, and that they could be measured by common electrochemical instruments. Building on an understanding of how foods are tested for antioxidants, an iridium salt was used to probe blood serum samples for detectable optical and electrochemical signals that indicate oxidative stress in the body. The promising initial tests have shown various biological reductants can be detected, including glutathione, the most prominent antioxidant in the body.
The group worked with professor of psychiatry Deanna Kelly and her team at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, to perform an initial clinical evaluation. Investigators used serum samples from 10 clinical research study participants who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, and a healthy control group. Using the new testing method, the research group was able to correctly differentiate the samples of those who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia from those who had no history of the disorder. 'Much emerging data suggests that schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders may be due, in part, to inflammation and oxidative stress abnormalities, 'Kelly said. 'Current methods for measuring these potential biomarkers are not standardized and have many flaws. Our team is excited to work with our collaborators at the University of Maryland to help develop a technique that can more globally measure these outcomes.
Being able to have a subjective marker for clinical response or aid in more prompt diagnosis could be revolutionary.'"So many times I have wrote about new things then you do not hear anymore I really hope they can come up with something that can help people and then you hear no more. I for one do not like being ill. That is why I walk and take care of myself. Mental illness can be bad for a person when they are ill especially when you do not understand what and why this is happening to you.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

'Mirror game' test could secure early detection of schizophrenia, study shows

That is the title of this article I am reviewing today. "Virtual reality could hold the key to unlocking an affordable, reliable and effective device to provide early diagnosis and management of schizophrenia. A pioneering new study, led by experts from the University of Exeter in collaboration with partners from the Alterego FP7 EU project, has developed a new, 'mirror game' test using computer avatars to accurately detect specific variations in how patients move and interact socially -- well-documented characteristics of the mental disorder. For the study, the research team asked volunteers to perform a series of specific movements on their own, and then mirror some movements carried out by a computer avatar on a large screen placed opposite them. The results of these first trials revealed that the test gave a more accurate diagnosis when compared to clinical interviews, and comparable results when compared to more expensive, traditional neuroimaging methods, the team has concluded."That is good if they can detect it early and save people from becoming ill.  I know I would have liked to have known.  That is the part I hated about this illness was when I became sick and was not in control of my life anymore.
The article goes on to say: "'They believe it could open up new, unobtrusive pathways for health professionals to diagnose and treat schizophrenia in the future. They are now looking at conducting clinical trials to confirm the effectiveness of the early detection technique, before it can be employed in clinical practices worldwide. The study is published in leading scientific journal npj Schizophrenia.
Dr Piotr Slowinski, lead author of the study and a Mathematics Research Fellow at the University of Exeter, explained: "Human movement can give a fascinating and sophisticated insight into our personality traits and behavioral characteristics. 'Studying how people move and react to others may seem a simplistic way to help diagnose a patient with such a debilitating condition, but our results were comparable to existing, more expensive neuroimaging methods. 'Although this is still at a relatively early stage, we are confident that clinical trials could reveal the potential of the mirror test to produce a reliable, adaptable and, crucially, affordable, method for diagnosing and monitoring treatment of schizophrenia in patients of all ages, and all stages of the condition.' Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that affects around one in 100 people worldwide with common symptoms such as delusions and auditory hallucinations, or hearing voices. At present, there is no single test for schizophrenia and the condition is usually diagnosed after assessment by specialists in mental health.'"That they can tell before a relapse or something happens would be great.  I did not know when I relapsed all I know I was not the same person of a few days before.  I was taking my medication but they had lowered it to much. I am glad I am on Geodon now it helps a lot.  Although I did not want to change medication because I was scared of getting sick again.
The article ends with: "However, the team of experts previously showed that people who display similar behavioural characteristics tend to move their bodies in the same way. The study suggested each person has an individual motor signature (IMS), a blueprint of the subtle differences in the way they move compared to someone else, such as speed or weight of movement. The team suggested that a person's IMS -- and how they interact with others -- could give an insight into their mental health condition, and so pave the way for personalised prediction, diagnosis or treatment in the future. In their research, the team used a simple mirror game, in which a 'player' is asked to imitate the movements made by an on-screen avatar. By looking at how the patients move and react to others, and compare it with 'comparable' movement blueprints for schizophrenia sufferers, the team believe the test can give not only an accurate and quick diagnosis, but also demonstrate how well patients are reacting to ongoing treatment. Professor Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, who specialises in Mathematics in Healthcare at the University of Exeter, added: "We have already shown that people who move in a certain way also react in similar ways when performing joint tasks, meaning that our movements give an insight into our inherent personality traits. 'This latest study is a pivotal step forward in using virtual reality as a means to carry out speedy and effective diagnosis, which is crucial for so many people who suffer from this debilitating condition worldwide.'" Yeah because when I first became sick they told my Mom that I would have to go in and say it myself that I was sick.  I do not think at the time I would have I was bettering my life and did not need any setbacks.  That is what I received though a setback that cost me five years of my life in the State Hospital. I learned a lot but I think I could have learned for free.

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

Sunshine Could Be Therapy For Schizophrenia And Depression Patients

That is the title of this article I am reviewing today. "'People with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia might experience some relief if they spend more time in the sun. The International Early Psychosis Association has reported that research from Norway’s University of Oslo presented during its annual conference in Italy shows that low levels of vitamin D are 'associated with increased negative and depressive symptoms' in those patients, according to a statement. The research team was investigating whether low vitamin D could be linked to specific symptoms as well as to cognitive deficits in young patients. In both cases, a few hundred patients were studied; they showed a connection between vitamin D deficiency and negative symptoms and between the vitamin and 'cognitive impairments in processing speed and verbal fluency.'" Most people with schizophrenia cannot be in the sun for too long because the antipyschotics reacts to the sun and can give rash an other problems. Although can all do with less cognitive impairments.
The article goes on to say: "Vitamin D has many benefits, one of them being promoting calcium absorption in the body, according to the National Institutes of Health. It is also crucial in cell and bone growth and in immune function. Because our bodies produce it when our skin is exposed to sunlight, people who spend a lot of time indoors can become deficient in the vitamin, a malady that is common — and even more so in the winter. Associating sunshine with mental health is not a new idea. Low levels of sunshine, such as what is available during winter months in cold climates, is one of the things that drives seasonal affective disorder, a form of depression that follows the cycle of the seasons, the Mayo Clinic says."The only sun I recieve is when I am waiting for the bus depending on the time of year on how much I really get.  I do know that since I started geodon I do not have the problem with the sun that I had with the Moban it gave me a rash when I suntanned.  With the geodon I have went in the sun with no problem I do not know if that is with all antipyschotics.
The article ends: "'It has also been long suggested that spending more time in the sun could improve mental health. In one article from Issues in Mental Health Nursing, the authors say regulating vitamin D levels in people 'with depression and other mental disorders may be an easy and cost-effective therapy which could improve patients’ long-term health outcomes as well as their quality of life.' And there is a treatment called light therapy, or phototherapy, in which patients — such as those suffering from seasonal affective disorder — sit near a device that 'gives off bright light that mimics natural outdoor light,' the Mayo Clinic explains. A link to vitamin D has been drawn even to dementia and migraines. In the Oslo studies that looked at the link between vitamin D and the severity of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders, the authors concluded that the findings could be a first step toward investigating the connection in a larger sample size, according to the International Early Psychosis Association’s statement. They are also now using MRIs to look at the role of the vitamin in different brain structures.'"If this can help people with negative symptoms that would be great.  If it could help people with memory also I know they have a problem with that also.

Wednesday, February 8, 2017

Researchers find chemical switch that may decrease symptoms of schizophrenia

That is the title of this article I am reviewing today. "A new study by University of Maryland School of Medicine researchers has found that in mice, adjusting levels of a compound called kynurenic acid can have significant effects on schizophrenia-like behavior. The study appeared in the latest issue of the journal Biological Psychiatry. In recent years, scientists have identified kynurenic acid as a potential key player in schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia have higher than normal levels of kynurenic acid in their brains. KYNA, as it is known, is a metabolite of the amino acid tryptophan; it decreases glutamate, and research has found that people with this illness tend to have less glutamate signaling than people without the disease. Scientists have theorized that this reduction in glutamate activity, and therefore the higher KYNA levels seen in patients, might be connected with a range of symptoms seen in schizophrenia, especially cognitive problems."  They would have to find a way to decrease this kynurenic acid and see what happens if the cognitive symptoms disappear. I know people with this disease would like to see some of their symptoms disappear so they can lead a normal life.
The article goes on to say: "'For several years, Robert Schwarcz, PhD, a Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM), who in 1988 was the first to identify the presence of KYNA in the brain, has studied the role of KYNA in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric diseases. For the new study, Dr. Schwarcz and his team collaborated closely with scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom, and KynuRex, a biotech company in San Francisco. 'This study provides crucial new support for our longstanding hypothesis', Dr. Schwarcz said. 'It explains how the KYNA system may become dysfunctional in schizophrenia.' Dr. Schwarcz and his colleagues studied mice which were deficient in kynurenine 3-monooxygenase, or KMO, an enzyme that is crucial for determining the levels of KYNA in the brain. Specifically, lower KMO results in higher levels of KYNA. Interestingly, patients with schizophrenia have lower than normal brain levels of KMO, which may be linked to lower levels of glutamate.'" Have they tried decreasing the levels?  What causes so much of this KYNA?
The article ends: "The mice with lower levels of KMO showed impairments in contextual memory and spent less time than did a control group interacting with an unfamiliar mouse in a social setting. The low-KMO mice also showed increased anxiety-like behavior when put into a maze and other challenging settings. Since these behaviors are similar to behavioral traits in humans with schizophrenia, this suggests that KMO and KYNA may play a key role in the disease. The new discovery has clinical implications as well. On its own, boosting glutamate on a large scale has serious side effects, including seizures and nerve cell death. Dr. Schwarcz and his colleagues propose that modifying KYNA could adjust glutamate more precisely. In recent years, he and his collaborators have in fact shown that a reduction in KYNA improves cognition in animals that have cognitive deficits similar to those seen in schizophrenia. Because this mechanism is indirect, it seems not to trigger the same side effects that directly boosting glutamate does. His UM SOM team is now investigating compounds that might produce the same results in humans." Now that is the news we are waiting for that they might find compounds that decrease the KYNA in people with schizo-phrenia. If it can improve memory that would help a lot of people.